Posts tagged with biology...

Two-Headed Dolphin Is Super Rare →

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Marine Snow-Until about 130 years ago, scholars believed that no life could exist in the deep ocean. The abyss was simply too dark and cold to sustain life. The discovery of many animals living in the abyssal environment stunned the late 19th century scientific community. Major questions immediately emerged: How do deep sea animals obtain food so far from the ocean’s surface where plants, the base of the ecosystem, grow? Soon after World War II, scientists at Hokkaido University built an early submersible, named Kuroshio, to dive in the ocean north of Japan. Wherever they beamed a search light, they saw “snowflakes” dancing from the disturbance caused by the submersible. K. Kato and N. Suzuki named this phenomenon “marine snow.” 

Marine snow is a continous shower of organic detritus that falls from the sunlit upper layers into the deep ocean. It consists of dead or dying animals and plants, fecal matter, and inorganic dust, clumped together in loose flocs. In the deep ocean it is consumed by a variety of animals or decomposes. Many marine snow “flakes” are sticky and fibrous like a crumbled spider net, and particles easily adhere to them, forming agregates. An aggregate begins to sink when it attracts fecal pellets, foraminifera tests, airborne dust, and other heavier particles. As it descends, more suspended particles are added, making the aggregate even heavier and thus faster moving. 

Marine snow is a significant energy source and a mechanism for transporting carbon into the deep ocean (known as the biological carbon pump), allowing for life in the deep. 

 

simmerdown:

thingsiphotoshopped:

SHARKS ARE IMPORTANT, GUYS!

O·vip·a·rous

Producing eggs that hatch outside the body. Amphibians, birds, and most insects, fish, and reptiles are oviparous


More specifically:

Land-dwelling animals that lay eggs, often protected by a shell, such as reptiles and insects, do so after having completed the process of internal fertilization. Water-dwelling animals, such as fish and amphibians, lay their eggs before fertilization, and the male lays its sperm on top of the newly laid eggs in a process called external fertilization.

Almost all non-oviparous fish, amphibians and reptiles are ovoviviparous, i.e. the eggs are hatched inside the mother’s body (or, in case of the sea horse inside the father’s).

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(Photo found here)
That long yellow thing in the middle is the Chinese Trumpetfish (Aulostomus chinensis), a species of reef-dwelling fish in the family Aulostomidae. They occur on protected reefs from the eastern coast of Africa, through the Indian Ocean, Australasia, and the Pacific Ocean from Japan and China to the coast of the Americas. They feed on small fishes and shrimps, relying on camouflage and stealth to obtain prey. They occur in three basic color phases: uniformly brown to green, mottled brown to green, or uniformly yellow. They reach a maximum of 80cm.
(Source)

(Photo found here)

That long yellow thing in the middle is the Chinese Trumpetfish (Aulostomus chinensis), a species of reef-dwelling fish in the family Aulostomidae. They occur on protected reefs from the eastern coast of Africa, through the Indian Ocean, Australasia, and the Pacific Ocean from Japan and China to the coast of the Americas. They feed on small fishes and shrimps, relying on camouflage and stealth to obtain prey. They occur in three basic color phases: uniformly brown to green, mottled brown to green, or uniformly yellow. They reach a maximum of 80cm.

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Pol·yp

A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa (see this post). Polyps are approximately cylindrical in shape and elongated at the axis of the body. In solitary polyps, the aboral (surface opposite the mouth) end is attached to the substrate by means of a disc-like holdfast called the pedal disc, while in colonies of polyps it is connected to other polyps, either directly or indirectly. The oral end contains the mouth, and is surrounded by a circlet of tentacles. 

In the class Anthozoa, comprising the sea anemones and corals (see these posts), the individual is always a polyp; in the class Hydrozoa, however, the individual may be either a polyp or a medusa, with most species undergoing a life cycle with both a polyp stage and a medusa stage. In class Scyphozoa, the medusa stage is dominant, and the polyp stage may or may not be present, depending on the family. In those scyphozoans that have the larval planula metamorphose into a polyp, the polyp, also called a “scyphistoma,” grows until it develops a stack of plate-like medusae that pinch off and swim away in a process known as strobilation. Once strobilation is complete, the polyp may die, or regenerate itself to repeat the process again later. With Cubozoans, the planula settles onto a suitable surface, and develops into a polyp. The cubozoan polyp then eventually metamorphoses directly into a Medusa.

The body of the polyp may be roughly compared in a structure to a sac, the wall of which is composed of two layers of cells. The outer layer is known technically as the ectoderm, the inner layer as the endoderm (or gastroderm). Between ectoderm and endoderm is a supporting layer of structureless gelatinous substance termed mesogloea, secreted by the cell layers of the body wall. The mesogloea may be a very thin layer, or may reach a fair thickness, and then sometimes contains skeletal elements formed by cells which have migrated into it from the ectoderm.

The sac-like body built up in this way is attached usually to some firm object by its blind end, and bears at the upper end the mouth which is surrounded by a circle of tentacles which resemble glove fingers. The tentacles are organs which serve both for the tactile sense and for the capture of food. Polyps extend their tentacles, particularly at night, containing coiled like stinging nettle-cells or nematocysts which pierce and poison and firmly hold living prey paralysing or killing them.

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